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Ace players have a mental library containing hundreds of such moves, enabling them to make quick decisions during a game. Finally, don't underestimate the psychology of playing backgammon.
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Backgammon is […] a gambling game which requires both luck and skill. Online casinos have realized that the new generation does not want to participate in a game where the player has no control.
To achieve that there needs to be an element of skill which provides partial control. If one is skilled enough one can win more money. This way the player has a chance to get better whilst mastering the game.
Are your skills up to par?! Backgammon is a bit more complicated than other board games like Dominoes for example.
The first step in mastering it is to learn the board:. The object of the game is to move your checkers from point 1 starting triangle to point 24, in a clock-wise or counter-clockwise direction, depending on the game, and then bear them off remove them of the board.
The first player is determined by who has the highest number in the first roll. The doubling cube is a dice that sits on the right side of the board and has the numbers: The object of the cube is to increase the starting bet by the set number of times.
So, when you want to double the stakes, you take the doubling cube and set in on 2 at the middle of the board.
Once one player decides to double the stakes, the opponent has to accept or forfeit the game. If he accepts, then the next decision to double lies with him, and so forth.
The final object of a game of backgammon is to bear off your checkers. You can only do this after moving all 15 checkers to your home board.
Once you do this, you roll your dice and then pick one checker from the corresponding home points. So, if you roll a 6 and 2, you move one checker from your 2 point and one from your 6, and so on.
People love playing backgammon because they can learn the basics quickly. But mastering the game can take years -- and the right mental skills.
Two of those abilities involve the part of your brain that crunches numbers. For example, the better you are at some basic arithmetic and probability, the better you'll be at backgammon.
Because backgammon relies on the roll of dice, so a good grasp of numbers and probability is enormously helpful. Here's just one example: Rolling two dice produces 36 possible outcomes.
The odds of rolling a specific number are 11 in The odds that a roll contains one of two specific numbers are 20 in Another useful talent is recognizing patterns on the backgammon board.
This comes after playing many, many games and seeing how checkers often fall into certain positions that can be exploited by specific moves.
A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.
Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo,  former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon,  with archived videos on Twitch  and YouTube.
When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet. Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators.
Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options;  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.
Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.
Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur. On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake.
Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:.
Set-up and rules the same as backgammon. A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.
There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.
The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.
The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere. The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula".
Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube. A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point.
A game where one checker by itself can block a point. Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.
After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. In Japan ban-sugoroku is thought to have been introduced from China in the 6th century.
As a gambling game it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
The jeux de tables Games of Tables , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers.
Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph of Death " by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.
In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English " gamen ", meaning "game" or "play".
The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.
The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".
He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March, , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.
Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.
Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Backgammon film. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, The picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of World Backgammon champions. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin.
New Series 1 9: Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Morehead and Geoffrey Mott-Smith. Backgammon for Serious Players Second ed.
Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 13 September Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 13 March The three games together are called 'Tavli' and are usually played one after the other in matches of three, five, or seven points An exposure of the arts and miseries of gambling.
The Daily Telegraph Australia. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 6 March Communications of the ACM.
Archived from the original on 25 February The Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vyzantinon Vios kai Politismos. New Series 4 7: Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 13 August The University of Texas at Austin.
The New York Times. A disk and dice game that has been played in Middle Eastern streets for thousands of years, in English homes for hundreds of years, and on Bronx stoops for dozens of years has suddenly gripped the bankers and brokers of old-line men's clubs all over town.
This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Backgammon " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
Acey-deucey Gul bara Plakoto Sugoroku Tapa. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.